Egypt – the most populous country in the Arab World – is also by far the largest importer of wheat globally. For centuries, wheat has been a central component of the typical diet of the country’s inhabitants. At the same time, assuring access to this important staple food by all Egyptian citizens, a quarter of whom live under the poverty line, has also been a central aspect of the country’s social policies. The strategic importance of the wheat sector has resulted in a strong involvement of the State at all levels of the wheat value chain. The joint sector review of the FAO and EBRD aims at helping both policy-makers and investors to achieve the goal
of more efficient and inclusive agricultural and food systems. Its objective was to identify the main
bottlenecks in the wheat supply chain and to enable dialogue between Egyptian
public and private sector actors in order to allow for greater private sector
investment along the wheat supply chain and ultimately improve the country’s
The report provides a general overview of the Egyptian grain sector, followed
by an analysis of more specific aspects of the wheat sector such as production,
consumption, trade, storage, milling and wheat policy.